Kubernetes architecture

Main components of K8s

Master Node

API ServerThe API Server communicates with all the components within the cluster.
Key-Value Store (etcd)A light-weight distributed key-value store used to accumulate all cluster data.
ControllerUses the API Server to monitor the state of the cluster. It tries to move the actual state of the cluster to match the desired state from your manifest file.
SchedulerSchedules newly created pods onto worker nodes. Always selects nodes with the least traffic to balance the workload.

Worker Node

Worker nodes are the machines where the containerized workloads and storage volumes are deployed.

There are multiple instances of Worker Nodes, each performing their assigned tasks.

KubeletA daemon that runs on each node and responds to the master’s requests to create, destroy, and monitor pods on that machine.
Container Runtimecontainer runtime retrieves images from a container image registry and starts and stops containers. This is usually a 3rd party software or plugin, such as Docker.
Kube-proxyA network proxy that maintains network communication to your Pods from within or from outside the cluster.
Add-ons (DNS, Web UI..)Additional features you can add to your cluster to extend certain functionalities.
Podpod is the smallest element of scheduling in Kubernetes. It represents a ‘wrapper’ for the container with the application code. If you need to scale your app within a Kubernetes cluster, you can only do so by adding or removing pods. A node can host multiple pods.

ASM asmcmd

Here are asmcmd commands in a nutshell.

https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e18951/asm_util004.htm#OSTMG01644

ASMCMD Disk Group Management Commands

This section describes the ASMCMD disk group management commands.

Table 12-27 provides a summary of the disk group management commands.

Table 12-27 Summary of ASMCMD Disk group management commands

CommandDescription
chdgChanges a disk group (add, drop, or rebalance).
chkdgChecks or repairs a disk group.
dropdgDrops a disk group.
iostatDisplays I/O statistics for disks.
lsattrLists the attributes of a disk group.
lsdgLists disk groups and their information.
lsdskLists disks Oracle ASM disks.
lsodLists open devices.
md_backupCreates a backup of the metadata of mounted disk groups.
md_restoreRestores disk groups from a backup of the metadata.
mkdgCreates a disk group.
mountMounts a disk group.
offlineOfflines a disk or a failure group.
onlineOnlines a disk or a failure group.
rebalRebalances a disk group.
remapRelocates data in a range of physical blocks on a disk.
setattrSets attributes in a disk group.
umountDismounts a disk group.

chdg

Purpose

Changes a disk group (adds disks, drops disks, resizes disks, or rebalances a disk group) based on an XML configuration file.

Syntax and Description
chdg { config_file.xml | 'contents_of_xml_file' }

Table 12-28 lists the syntax options for the chdg command.

Table 12-28 Options for the chdg command

OptionDescription
config_fileName of the XML file that contains the changes for the disk group. chdg searches for the XML file in the directory where ASMCMD was started unless a path is specified.For examples of the valid tags and XML configuration file, see Example 12-30 and Example 12-31.
contents_of_xml_fileThe XML script enclosed in single quotations.

chdg modifies a disk group based on an XML configuration file. The modification includes adding or deleting disks from an existing disk group, and the setting rebalance power level. The power level can be set to the same values as the ASM_POWER_LIMIT initialization parameter. For information about the initialization parameter, see “ASM_POWER_LIMIT”.

When adding disks to a disk group, the diskstring must be specified in a format similar to the ASM_DISKSTRING initialization parameter. For information about the initialization parameter, see “ASM_DISKSTRING”.

The failure groups are optional parameters. The default causes every disk to belong to a its own failure group. For information about failure groups, see“Oracle ASM Failure Groups”.

Dropping disks from a disk group can be performed through this operation. An individual disk can be referenced by its Oracle ASM disk name. A set of disks that belong to a failure group can be specified by the failure group name. For information about dropping disks, see“Dropping Disks from Disk Groups”.

You can resize a disk inside a disk group with chdg. The resize operation fails if there is not enough space for storing data after the resize. For information about resizing disks, see“Resizing Disks in Disk Groups”.

Example 12-30 shows the basic structure and the valid tags with their respective attributes for the chdg XML configuration file.

Example 12-30 Tags for the chdg XML configuration template

<chdg> update disk clause (add/delete disks/failure groups)
      name         disk group to change
      power        power to perform rebalance
 
<add>  items to add are placed here
</add>

<drop> items to drop are placed here
</drop>

<fg>  failure group
      name         failure group name
</fg>

<dsk> disk
      name         disk name
      string       disk path
      size         size of the disk to add
      force        true specifies to use the force option
</dsk>

</chdg>

For information about creating a disk group with ASMCMD mkdg, see “mkdg”. For information about altering disk groups, see “Altering Disk Groups”.

Example

The following is an example of an XML configuration file for chdg. This XML file alters the disk group named data. The failure group fg1 is dropped and the disk data_0001 is also dropped. The /dev/disk5 disk is added to failure group fg2. The rebalance power level is set to 3.

Example 12-31 chdg sample XML configuration file

<chdg name="data" power="3">
  <drop>
    <fg name="fg1"></fg>
    <dsk name="data_0001"/>
  </drop>
  <add>
    <fg name="fg2">
      <dsk string="/dev/disk5"/>
    </fg>
  </add>
</chdg>

The following are examples of the chdg command with the configuration file or configuration information on the command line.

Example 12-32 Using the ASMCMD chdg command

ASMCMD [+] > chdg data_config.xml

ASMCMD [+] > chdg '<chdg name="data" power="3">
        <drop><fg name="fg1"></fg><dsk name="data_0001"/></drop>
        <add><fg name="fg2"><dsk string="/dev/disk5"/></fg></add></chdg>'

chkdg

Purpose

Checks or repairs the metadata of a disk group.

Syntax and Description
chkdg [--repairdiskgroup

Table 12-29 lists the syntax options for the chkdg command.

Table 12-29 Options for the chkdg command

OptionDescription
--repairRepairs the disk group.
diskgroupName of disk group to check or repair.

chkdg checks the metadata of a disk group for errors and optionally repairs the errors.

Example

The following is an example of the chkdg command used to check and repair the data disk group.

Example 12-33 Using the ASMCMD chkdg command

ASMCMD [+] > chkdg --repair data

dropdg

Purpose

Drops a disk group.

Syntax and Description
dropdg [-r-f] [-rdiskgroup

Table 12-30 lists the syntax options for the dropdg command.

Table 12-30 Options for the dropdg command

OptionDescription
-fForce the operation. Only applicable if the disk group cannot be mounted.
-rRecursive, include contents.
diskgroupName of disk group to drop.

dropdg drops an existing disk group. The disk group should not be mounted on multiple nodes.

Example

These are examples of the use of dropdg. The first example forces the drop of the disk group data, including any data in the disk group. The second example drops the disk group fra, including any data in the disk group.

Example 12-34 Using the ASMCMD dropdg command

ASMCMD [+] > dropdg -r -f data

ASMCMD [+] > dropdg -r fra

iostat

Purpose

Displays I/O statistics for Oracle ASM disks in mounted disk groups.

Syntax and Description
iostat [--suppressheader] [-et] [--io] [--region]
 [-Gdiskgroup] [interval]

iostat lists disk group statistics using the V$ASM_DISK_IOSTAT view.

Table 12-31 lists the syntax options for the iostat command.

Table 12-31 Options for the iostat command

OptionDescription
-eDisplays error statistics (Read_Err, Write_Err).
-G diskgroupDisplays statistics for the disk group name.
--suppressheaderSuppresses column headings.
--ioDisplays information in number of I/Os, instead of bytes.
-tDisplays time statistics (Read_Time, Write_Time).
--regionDisplays information for cold and hot disk regions (Cold_Reads, Cold_Writes, Hot_Reads, Hot_Writes).
intervalRefreshes the statistics display based on the interval value (seconds). Use Ctrl-C to stop the interval display.

Table 12-32 shows the statistics for a disk group. To view the complete set of statistics for a disk group, use the V$ASM_DISK_IOSTAT view.

Table 12-32 Attribute descriptions for iostat command output

Attribute NameDescription
Group_NameName of the disk group.
Dsk_NameName of the disk.
ReadsNumber of bytes read from the disk. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
WritesNumber of bytes written to the disk. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
Cold_ReadsNumber of bytes read from the cold disk region. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
Cold_WritesNumber of bytes written from the cold disk region. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
Hot_ReadsNumber of bytes read from the hot disk region. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
Hot_WritesNumber of bytes written to the hot disk region. If the --io option is entered, then the value is displayed as number of I/Os.
Read_ErrNumber of failed I/O read requests for the disk.
Write_ErrNumber of failed I/O write requests for the disk.
Read_TimeI/O time (in hundredths of a second) for read requests for the disk if the TIMED_STATISTICS initialization parameter is set to TRUE (0 if set to FALSE).
Write_TimeI/O time (in hundredths of a second) for write requests for the disk if the TIMED_STATISTICS initialization parameter is set to TRUE (0 if set to FALSE).

If a refresh interval is not specified, the number displayed represents the total number of bytes or I/Os. If a refresh interval is specified, then the value displayed (bytes or I/Os) is the difference between the previous and current values, not the total value.

Example

The following are examples of the iostat command. The first example displays disk I/O statistics for the data disk group in total number of bytes. The second example displays disk I/O statistics for the data disk group in total number of I/O operations.

Example 12-35 Using the ASMCMD iostat command

ASMCMD [+] > iostat -G data
Group_Name  Dsk_Name   Reads       Writes     
DATA        DATA_0000  180488192   473707520  
DATA        DATA_0001  1089585152  469538816  
DATA        DATA_0002  191648256   489570304  
DATA        DATA_0003  175724032   424845824  
DATA        DATA_0004  183421952   781429248  
DATA        DATA_0005  1102540800  855269888  
DATA        DATA_0006  171290624   447662592  
DATA        DATA_0007  172281856   361337344  
DATA        DATA_0008  173225472   390840320  
DATA        DATA_0009  288497152   838680576  
DATA        DATA_0010  196657152   375764480  
DATA        DATA_0011  436420096   356003840  

ASMCMD [+] > iostat --io -G data
Group_Name  Dsk_Name   Reads  Writes  
DATA        DATA_0000  2801   34918   
DATA        DATA_0001  58301  35700   
DATA        DATA_0002  3320   36345   
DATA        DATA_0003  2816   10629   
DATA        DATA_0004  2883   34850   
DATA        DATA_0005  59306  38097   
DATA        DATA_0006  2151   10129   
DATA        DATA_0007  2686   10376   
DATA        DATA_0008  2105   8955    
DATA        DATA_0009  9121   36713   
DATA        DATA_0010  3557   8596    
DATA        DATA_0011  17458  9269    

lsattr

Purpose

Lists the attributes of a disk group.

Syntax and Description
lsattr [--suppressheader][-Gdiskgroup ] [-lm] [pattern]

Table 12-33 lists the syntax options for the lsattr command.

Table 12-33 Options for the lsattr command

OptionDescription
-G diskgroupDisk group name.
--suppressheaderSuppresses column headings.
-lDisplay names with values.
-mDisplays additional information, such as the RO and Sys columns.
patternDisplay the attributes that contain pattern expression.

Information about disk group attributes is retrieved from the V$ASM_ATTRIBUTE view. For information about disk group attributes, see “Disk Group Attributes”.

The RO (read-only) column identifies those attributes that can only be set when a disk group is created. The Sys column identifies those attributes that are system-created.

To display information about the disk group template attributes, see “lstmpl”.

To set disk group attributes, see “setattr”.

Example

The following are examples of the lsattr command. The first displays information about all attributes for the data disk group. The second example displays only those attributes with names containing the string compat for the fra disk group. Note the use of both the % and * wildcard characters on Linux.

Example 12-36 Using the ASMCMD lsattr command

ASMCMD [+] > lsattr -G data -l
Name                     Value       
access_control.enabled   FALSE       
access_control.umask     066         
au_size                  1048576     
cell.smart_scan_capable  FALSE       
compatible.advm          11.2.0.0.0  
compatible.asm           11.2.0.0.0  
compatible.rdbms         11.2.0.0.0  
disk_repair_time         3.6h        
sector_size              512

ASMCMD [+] > lsattr -G fra -l %compat*
Name              Value       
compatible.asm    11.2.0.0.0  
compatible.rdbms  10.1.0.0.0  

lsdg

Purpose

Lists mounted disk groups and their information. lsdg queries V$ASM_DISKGROUP_STAT by default. If the --discovery flag is specified, the V$ASM_DISKGROUP is queried instead. The output also includes notification of any current rebalance operation for a disk group. If a disk group is specified, then lsdg returns only information about that disk group.

Syntax and Description

lsdg [--suppressheader] [-g] [--discovery] [pattern]

Table 12-34 lists the options for the lsdg command.

Table 12-34 Options for the lsdg command

OptionDescription
(none)Displays the disk group attributes listed in Table 12-35.
--discoverySelects from V$ASM_DISKGROUP, or from GV$ASM_DISKGROUP if the -g flag is also specified. This option is always enabled if the Oracle ASM instance is version 10.1 or earlier. This flag is disregarded if lsdg is running in non-connected mode.
-gSelects from GV$ASM_DISKGROUP_STAT, or from GV$ASM_DISKGROUP if the --discovery flag is also specified. GV$ASM_DISKGROUP.INST_ID is included in the output. The REBAL column of the GV$ASM_OPERATION view is also included in the output.
--suppressheaderSuppresses column headings.
patternReturns only information about the specified disk group or disk groups that match the supplied pattern. See “Wildcard Characters”.

Table 12-35 shows the attributes for each disk group. To view the complete set of attributes for a disk group, use the V$ASM_DISKGROUP_STAT or V$ASM_DISKGROUP view.

See Also:Oracle Database Reference for descriptions of disk group information displayed in the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view

Table 12-35 Attribute descriptions for lsdg command output

Attribute NameDescription
StateState of the disk group. Values include BROKENCONNECTEDDISMOUNTEDMOUNTEDQUIESCING, and UNKNOWN.
TypeDisk group redundancy (NORMALHIGHEXTERNAL).
RebalY if a rebalance operation is in progress.
SectorSector size in bytes.
BlockBlock size in bytes.
AUAllocation unit size in bytes.
Total_MBSize of the disk group in megabytes.
Free_MBFree space in the disk group in megabytes, without regard to redundancy. From the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view.
Req_mir_free_MBAmount of space that must be available in the disk group to restore full redundancy after the most severe failure that can be tolerated by the disk group. This is the REQUIRED_MIRROR_FREE_MB column from the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view.
Usable_file_MBAmount of free space, adjusted for mirroring, that is available for new files. From the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view.
Offline_disksNumber of offline disks in the disk group. Offline disks are eventually dropped.
Voting_filesSpecifies whether the disk group contains voting files (Y or N).
NameDisk group name.

Example

The following example lists the attributes of the data disk group.

Example 12-37 Using the ASMCMD lsdg command

ASMCMD [+] > lsdg data
State    Type    Rebal  Sector  Block       AU  Total_MB  Free_MB  Req_mir_free_MB  Usable_file_MB
MOUNTED  NORMAL  N         512   4096  4194304     12288     8835             1117            3859

(continued)
Offline_disks  Voting_files  Name
            0             N  DATA

lsdsk

Purpose

Lists Oracle ASM disks.

Syntax and Description
lsdsk [--suppressheader] [-kptgMI] [-Gdiskgroup ]
 [ --member|--candidate]
 [--discovery][--statistics][pattern]

Table 12-36 lists the options for the lsdsk command.

Table 12-36 Options for the lsdsk command

OptionDescription
(none)Displays the PATH column of the V$ASM_DISK_STAT view.
-kDisplays the TOTAL_MBFREE_MBOS_MB,NAMEFAILGROUPLIBRARYLABELUDIDPRODUCTREDUNDANCY, and PATH columns of the V$ASM_DISK view.
--statisticsDisplays the READSWRITESREAD_ERRSWRITE_ERRSREAD_TIMEWRITE_TIMEBYTES_READBYTES_WRITTEN, and the PATH columns of the V$ASM_DISK view.
-pDisplays the GROUP_NUMBERDISK_NUMBERINCARNATIONMOUNT_STATUSHEADER_STATUSMODE_STATUSSTATE, and the PATH columns of the V$ASM_DISK view.
-tDisplays the CREATE_DATEMOUNT_DATEREPAIR_TIMER, and the PATH columns of the V$ASM_DISK view.
-gSelects from GV$ASM_DISK_STAT, or from GV$ASM_DISK if the --discovery flag is also specified. GV$ASM_DISK.INST_ID is included in the output.
--discoverySelects from V$ASM_DISK, or from GV$ASM_DISK if the -g flag is also specified. This option is always enabled if the Oracle ASM instance is version 10.1 or earlier. This flag is disregarded if lsdsk is running in non-connected mode.
--suppressheaderSuppresses column headings.
-IScans disk headers for information rather than extracting the information from an Oracle ASM instance. This option forces non-connected mode.
-GRestricts results to only those disks that belong to the group specified by diskgroup.
-MDisplays the disks that are visible to some but not all active instances. These are disks that, if included in a disk group, cause the mount of that disk group to fail on the instances where the disks are not visible.
--candidateRestricts results to only disks having membership status equal to CANDIDATE.
--memberRestricts results to only disks having membership status equal to MEMBER.
patternReturns only information about the specified disks that match the supplied pattern.

The lsdsk command can run in connected or non-connected mode. The connected mode is always attempted first. The -I option forces non-connected mode.

  • In connected mode, lsdsk uses the V$ASM_DISK_STAT and V$ASM_DISK dynamic views to retrieve disk information. The V$ASM_DISK_STAT view is used by default.
  • In non-connected mode, lsdsk scans disk headers to retrieve disk information. Some information is not available in this mode and some options are not valid combinations with this mode.

Note:The non-connected mode is not supported on Windows.

pattern restricts the output to only disks that match the pattern specified. Wild-card characters and slashes (/ or \) can be part of the pattern. pattern should be specified as the last option for the command. For information about wildcards, see “Wildcard Characters”.

The -k-p-t, and --statistics options modify how much information is displayed for each disk. If any combination of the options are specified, then the output shows the union of the attributes associated with each flag.

Example

The following are examples of the lsdsk command. The first and second examples list information about disks in the data disk group. The third example lists information about candidate disks.

Example 12-38 Using the ASMCMD lsdsk command

ASMCMD [+] > lsdsk -t -G data
Create_Date  Mount_Date  Repair_Timer  Path
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diska1
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diska2
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diska3
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diskb1
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diskb2
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diskb3
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diskc1
13-JUL-09    13-JUL-09   0             /devices/diskc2
...

ASMCMD [+] > lsdsk -p -G data /devices/diska*
Group_Num  Disk_Num      Incarn  Mount_Stat  Header_Stat  Mode_Stat  State   Path
        1         0  2105454210  CACHED      MEMBER       ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diska1
        1         1  2105454199  CACHED      MEMBER       ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diska2
        1         2  2105454205  CACHED      MEMBER       ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diska3

ASMCMD [+] > lsdsk --candidate -p
Group_Num  Disk_Num      Incarn  Mount_Stat  Header_Stat  Mode_Stat  State   Path
        0         5  2105454171  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diske1
        0        25  2105454191  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diske2
        0        18  2105454184  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diske3
        0        31  2105454197  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diskk1
        0        21  2105454187  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diskk2
        0        26  2105454192  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diskk3
        0        14  2105454180  CLOSED      CANDIDATE    ONLINE     NORMAL  /devices/diskl1
...

lsod

Purpose

Lists the open Oracle ASM disks.

Syntax and Description
lsod [--suppressheader] [-Gdiskgroup] [--processprocess] [pattern]

Table 12-37 lists the syntax options for the lsod command.

Table 12-37 Options for the lsod command

OptionDescription
--suppressheaderSuppresses column header information from the output.
-G diskgroupSpecifies the disk group that contains the open disks.
--process processSpecifies a pattern to filter the list of processes.
patternSpecifies a pattern to filter the list of disks.

The rebalance operation (RBAL) opens a disk both globally and locally so the same disk may be listed twice in the output for the RBAL process.

Example

The following are examples of the lsod command. The first example lists the open devices associated with the data disk group and the LGWR process. The second example lists the open devices associated with the LGWR process for disks that match the diska pattern.

Example 12-39 Using the ASMCMD lsod command

ASMCMD [+] > lsod -G data --process *LGWR*
Instance Process                  OSPID Path
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska1 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska2 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska3 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diskb1 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diskb2 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diskb3 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diskd1 

ASMCMD [+] > lsod --process *LGWR* *diska*
Instance Process                  OSPID Path
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska1 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska2 
1        oracle@dadvmn0652 (LGWR) 26593 /devices/diska3 

For another example of the lsod command, see Example 12-2.

md_backup

Purpose

The md_backup command creates a backup file containing metadata for one or more disk groups.

Syntax and Description
md_backupbackup_file
     [-G'diskgroup [,diskgroup,...]']

Table 12-38 describes the options for the md_backup command.

Table 12-38 Options for the md_backup command

OptionDescription
backup_fileSpecifies the backup file in which you want to store the metadata.
-G diskgroupSpecifies the disk group name of the disk group that must be backed up

By default all the mounted disk groups are included in the backup file, which is saved in the current working directory if a path is not specified with the file name.

Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) volume and file system information is not backed up.

Example

The first example shows the use of the backup command when run without the disk group option. This example backs up all the mounted disk groups and creates the backup image in the /scratch/backup/alldgs20100422 file. The second example creates a backup of the data disk group. The metadata backup that this example creates is saved in the /scratch/backup/data20100422 file.

Example 12-40 Using the ASMCMD md_backup command

ASMCMD [+] > md_backup /scratch/backup/alldgs20100422
Disk group metadata to be backed up: DATA
Disk group metadata to be backed up: FRA
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ONLINELOG
Current alias directory path: ORCL/PARAMETERFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL
Current alias directory path: ASM
Current alias directory path: ORCL/DATAFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/CONTROLFILE
Current alias directory path: ASM/ASMPARAMETERFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/TEMPFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ARCHIVELOG/2010_04_20
Current alias directory path: ORCL
Current alias directory path: ORCL/BACKUPSET/2010_04_21
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ARCHIVELOG/2010_04_19
Current alias directory path: ORCL/BACKUPSET/2010_04_22
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ONLINELOG
Current alias directory path: ORCL/BACKUPSET/2010_04_20
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ARCHIVELOG
Current alias directory path: ORCL/BACKUPSET
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ARCHIVELOG/2010_04_22
Current alias directory path: ORCL/DATAFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/CONTROLFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ARCHIVELOG/2010_04_21

ASMCMD [+] > md_backup /scratch/backup/data20100422 -G data
Disk group metadata to be backed up: DATA
Current alias directory path: ORCL/ONLINELOG
Current alias directory path: ASM
Current alias directory path: ORCL/CONTROLFILE
Current alias directory path: ASM/ASMPARAMETERFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/PARAMETERFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL
Current alias directory path: ORCL/DATAFILE
Current alias directory path: ORCL/TEMPFILE

md_restore

Purpose

The md_restore command restores disk groups from a metadata backup file.

Syntax and Description
md_restorebackup_file[--silent]
     [--full|--nodg|--newdg-o'old_diskgroup:new_diskgroup [,…]’]
[-Ssql_script_file] [-G'diskgroup [,diskgroup…]']

Table 12-39 describes the options for the md_restore command.

Table 12-39 Options for the md_restore command

OptionDescription
backup_fileReads the metadata information from backup_file.
--silentIgnore errors. Typically, if md_restore encounters an error, it stops. Specifying this flag ignores any errors.
--fullSpecifies to create a disk group and restore metadata.
--nodgSpecifies to restore metadata only.
--newdg -o old_diskgroup:new_diskgroup]Specifies to create a disk group with a different name when restoring metadata. The -o option is required with --newdg.
-S sql_script_fileWrite SQL commands to the specified SQL script file instead of executing the commands.
-G diskgroupSelect the disk groups to be restored. If no disk groups are defined, then all disk groups are restored.

Example

The first example restores the disk group data from the backup script and creates a copy. The second example takes an existing disk group data and restores its metadata. The third example restores disk group data completely but the new disk group that is created is named data2. The fourth example restores from the backup file after applying the overrides defined in the override.sql script file.

Example 12-41 Using the ASMCMD md_restore command

ASMCMD [+] > md_restore –-full –G data –-silent /scratch/backup/alldgs20100422

ASMCMD [+] > md_restore –-nodg –G data –-silent /scratch/backup/alldgs20100422

ASMCMD [+] > md_restore –-newdg -o 'data:data2' --silent /scratch/backup/data20100422

ASMCMD [+] > md_restore -S override.sql --silent /scratch/backup/data20100422

mkdg

Purpose

Creates a disk group based on an XML configuration file.

Syntax and Description
mkdg { config_file.xml | 'contents_of_xml_file' }

Table 12-40 lists the syntax options for the mkdg command.

Table 12-40 Options for the mkdg command

OptionDescription
config_fileName of the XML file that contains the configuration for the new disk group. mkdg searches for the XML file in the directory where ASMCMD was started unless a path is specified.For examples of the valid tags and XML configuration file, see Example 12-42 and Example 12-43.
contents_of_xml_fileThe XML script enclosed in single quotations.

mkdg creates a new disk group with an XML configuration file that specifies the name of the disk group, redundancy, attributes, and paths of the disks that form the disk group. Redundancy is an optional parameter; the default is normal redundancy. For some types of redundancy, disks are required to be gathered into failure groups. In the case that failure groups are not specified for a disk group, each disk in the disk group belongs to its own failure group.

Note that mkdg only mounts a disk group on the local node.

It is possible to set some disk group attribute values during disk group creation. Some attributes, such as AU_SIZE and SECTOR_SIZE, can be set only during disk group creation. For more information about disk groups attributes, refer to “Disk Group Attributes”.

The default disk group compatibility settings are 10.1 for Oracle ASM compatibility, 10.1 for database compatibility, and no value for Oracle ADVM compatibility. For information about disk group compatibility attributes, see “Disk Group Compatibility”.

Example 12-42 shows the basic structure and the valid tags with their respective attributes for the mkdg XML configuration file.

Example 12-42 Tags for mkdg XML configuration file

<dg>  disk group
      name         disk group name
      redundancy   normal, external, high
 
<fg>  failure group
      name         failure group name
</fg>

<dsk> disk
      name         disk name
      string       disk path
      size         size of the disk to add
      force        true specifies to use the force option
</dsk>

<a>   attribute
      name         attribute name
      value        attribute value
</a>

</dg>

For information about altering a disk group with ASMCMD chdg, see “chdg”. For information about creating a disk group, see “Creating Disk Groups”.

Example

The following is an example of an XML configuration file for mkdg. The configuration file creates a disk group named data with normal redundancy. Two failure groups, fg1 and fg2, are created, each with two disks identified by associated disk strings. The disk group compatibility attributes are all set to 11.2.

Example 12-43 mkdg sample XML configuration file

<dg name="data" redundancy="normal">
  <fg name="fg1">
    <dsk string="/dev/disk1"/>
    <dsk string="/dev/disk2"/>
  </fg>
  <fg name="fg2">
    <dsk string="/dev/disk3"/>
    <dsk string="/dev/disk4"/>
  </fg>
  <a name="compatible.asm" value="11.2"/>
  <a name="compatible.rdbms" value="11.2"/>
  <a name="compatible.advm" value="11.2"/>
</dg>

The following are examples of the mkdg command. The first example runs mkdg with an XML configuration file in the directory where ASMCMD was started. The second example runs mkdg using information on the command line.

Example 12-44 Using the ASMCMD mkdg command

ASMCMD [+] > mkdg data_config.xml

ASMCMD [+] > mkdg '<dg name="data"><dsk string="/dev/disk*"/></dg>'

mount

Purpose

Mounts a disk group.

Syntax and Description
mount [--restrict] { [-a] | [-fdiskgroupdiskgroup …] }

Table 12-41 lists the syntax options for the mount command.

Table 12-41 Options for the mount command

OptionDescription
diskgroupName of the disk group.
-aMounts all disk groups.
--restrictMounts in restricted mode.
-fForces the mount operation.

This operation mounts one or more disk groups. A disk group can be mounted with or without force or restricted options. For more information about mounting disk groups, see “Mounting and Dismounting Disk Groups”.

Example

The following are examples of the mount command showing the use of the force, restrict, and all options.

Example 12-45 Using the ASMCMD mount command

ASMCMD [+] > mount -f data

ASMCMD [+] > mount --restrict data

ASMCMD [+] > mount -a

offline

Purpose

Offline disks or failure groups that belong to a disk group.

Syntax and Description
offline-Gdiskgroup
 { -Ffailgroup |-Ddisk}
 [-t {minutes | hours}]

Table 12-42 lists the syntax options for the offline command.

Table 12-42 Options for the offline command

OptionDescription
-G diskgroupDisk group name.
-F failgroupFailure group name.
-D diskSpecifies a single disk name.
-t minutes | hoursSpecifies the time before the specified disk is dropped as nm or nh, where m specifies minutes and h specifies hours. For example, 120m or 2h.The default unit is hours.

When a failure group is specified, this implies all the disks that belong to it should be offlined.

Example

The following are examples of the offline command. The first example offlines the failgroup1 failure group of the data disk group. The second example offlines the data_0001 disk of the data disk group with a time of 1.5 hours before the disk is dropped.

Example 12-46 Using the ASMCMD offline command

ASMCMD [+] > offline -G data -F failgroup1

ASMCMD [+] > offline -G data -D data_0001 -t 1.5h

online

Purpose

Online all disks, a single disk, or a failure group that belongs to a disk group.

Syntax and Description
online-Gdiskgroup { -a | -Ffailgroup |-Ddisk} [-w]

Table 12-43 lists the syntax options for the online command.

Table 12-43 Options for the online command

OptionDescription
-aOnline all offline disks in the disk group.
-G diskgroupDisk group name.
-F failgroupFailure group name.
-D diskDisk name.
-wWait option. Causes ASMCMD to wait for the disk group to be rebalanced before returning control to the user. The default is not waiting.

When a failure group is specified, this implies all the disks that belong to it should be onlined.

Example

The following are examples of the online command. The first example onlines all disks in the failgroup1 failure group of the data disk group with the wait option enabled. The second example onlines the data_0001 disk in the data disk group.

Example 12-47 Using the ASMCMD online command

ASMCMD [+] > online -G data -F failgroup1 -w 

ASMCMD [+] > online -G data -D data_0001

rebal

Purpose

Rebalances a disk group.

Syntax and Description
rebal [--powerpower] [-wdiskgroup

Table 12-44 lists the syntax options for the rebal command.

Table 12-44 Options for the rebal command

OptionDescription
diskgroupDisk group name.
--power powerPower setting.
-wWait option. Causes ASMCMD to wait for the disk group to be rebalanced before returning control to the user. The default is not waiting.

The power level can be set to the same values as the ASM_POWER_LIMIT initialization parameter. A value of 0 disables rebalancing. If the rebalance power is not specified, the value defaults to the setting of the ASM_POWER_LIMIT initialization parameter. For information about the power level, see “ASM_POWER_LIMIT” and “Tuning Rebalance Operations”.

You can determine if a rebalance operation is occurring with the ASMCMD lsop command. See “lsop”. For more information about rebalancing a disk group, see “Manually Rebalancing Disk Groups”.

Example

The following is an example of the rebal command that rebalances the fra disk group with a power level set to 4.

Example 12-48 Using the ASMCMD rebal command

ASMCMD [+] > rebal --power 4 fra

ASMCMD [+] > lsop
Group_Name  Dsk_Num  State  Power
FRA         REBAL    RUN    4

remap

Purpose

Marks a range of blocks as unusable on the disk and relocates any data allocated in that range.

Syntax and Description

remap diskgroup disk block_range

Table 12-45 lists the syntax options for the remap command.

Table 12-45 Options for the remap command

OptionDescription
diskgroupDisk group name in which a disk must have data relocated.
diskName of the disk that must have data relocated. The name must match the NAME column in the V$ASM_DISK view.
block_rangeRange of physical blocks to relocate in the format start_range_number-end_range_number.

The remap command only relocates blocks. It does not correct or repair blocks that contain corrupted contents. The command uses a physical block size based on the SECTOR_SIZE disk group attribute.

Examples

The first example remaps blocks 5000 through 5999 for disk DATA_0001 in disk group DATA. The second example remaps blocks 6230 through 6339 for disk FRA_0002 in disk group FRA

Example 12-49 Using the ASMCMD remap command

ASMCMD [+] > remap DATA DATA_0001 5000-5999

ASMCMD [+] > remap FRA FRA_0002 6230-6339

setattr

Purpose

Sets the attributes for an Oracle ASM disk group.

Syntax and Description
setattr-Gdiskgroupattribute_nameattribute_value

Table 12-46 lists the syntax options for the setattr command.

Table 12-46 Options for the setattr command

OptionDescription
-G diskgroupDisk group name.
attribute_nameName of the attribute.
attribute_valueValue of the attribute.

The COMPATIBLE.ASM attribute must be advanced before advancing other disk group compatibility attributes and its value must be greater than or equal to the value of other disk group compatibility attributes.

For information about disk group attributes, see “Disk Group Attributes”.

Example

The following are examples of the setattr command. The first example sets the disk group attribute COMPATIBLE.ASM to 11.2 for the data disk group. The second example sets the disk group attribute COMPATIBLE.RDBMS to 11.2 for the data disk group.

Example 12-50 Using the ASMCMD setattr command

ASMCMD [+] > setattr -G data compatible.asm 11.2.0.0.0

ASMCMD [+] > setattr -G data compatible.rdbms 11.2.0.0.0

umount

Purpose

Dismounts a disk group.

Syntax and Description
umount { -a | [-fdiskgroup }

Table 12-47 lists the syntax options for the umount command.

Table 12-47 Options for the umount command

OptionDescription
diskgroupName of the disk group.
-aDismounts all mounted disk groups. These disk groups are listed in the output of the V$ASM_DISKGROUP view.
-fForces the dismount operation.

Example

The following are examples of the umount command. The first example dismounts all disk groups mounted on the Oracle ASM instance. The second example forces the dismount of the data disk group.

Example 12-51 Using the ASMCMD umount command

ASMCMD [+] > umount -a

ASMCMD [+] > umount -f data

RAC Commands

Shutdown and Start sequence steps of Oracle RAC components

How to stop Oracle RAC (11g, 12c)?

You must perform these steps in the order listed to stop Oracle RAC:

  1. emctl stop dbconsole (11c only. In 12c DB Express replaces dbconsole and doesn’t have to be stopped )
  2. srvctl stop listener [-listener listener_name] [-node node_name] [-force] (stops all listener services)
  3. srvctl stop database -db db_unique_name [-stopoption stop_options] [-eval(12c only)] [-force] [-verbose]
  4. srvctl stop asm [-proxy] [-node node_name] [-stopoption stop_options] [-force]
  5. srvctl stop nodeapps [-node node_name] [-gsdonly] [-adminhelper] [-force] [-relocate] [-verbose]
  6. crsctl stop crs

How to Start Oracle RAC (11g, 12c)?

You must perform these steps in the order listed to start Oracle RAC:

1. crsctl start crs
2. crsctl start res ora.crsd -init
3. srvctl start nodeapps [-node node_name] [-gsdonly] [-adminhelper] [-verbose]
4. srvctl start asm [-proxy] [-node node_name [-startoption start_options]]
5. srvctl start database -db db_unique_name [-eval(12c only)]] [-startoption start_options] [-node node_name]
6. srvctl start listener [-node node_name] [-listener listener_name] (start all listener services)
7. emctl start dbconsole (11c only)

To start resources  of your HA environment if that are still down(e.g. ora.ons, Listener):
crsctl start resource -all

DEBUG

Starting with Oracle 12c, the log and trace files of the clusterware files are stored in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) under the ADR_HOME location $ADR_BASE/diag/crs/`hostname`/crs.

$ adrci
adrci> show homes

Cluster resources: CRS, HAS and cluster

How to display the status of resources in RAC?

Clusterware Resource Status Check : crsctl status resource -t (or shorter: crsctl stat res -t)

crsctl status resource -t (or shorter: crsctl stat res -t)

Find offline resources: crs_stat -t | grep -i offline

How to check the current status of a cluster?

crsctl check cluster
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

To know the cluster name: olsnodes -c

How to check the current status of CRS?

crsctl check crs
CRS-4638: Oracle High Availability Services is online (has)
CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online (crs)
CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online (css)
CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

How to Stop/Start the local node?

crsctl stop has
This command will also abort the database and CRS. Local Listeners will stop and VIP listeners will migrate elsewhere.

crsctl start has
This command will start all the CRS components, listeners and the database.

How to Stop/Start the whole cluster?

crsctl stop cluster -all
crsctl start cluster -all

How to To start and stop oracle clusterware (CRS)?

crsctl stop crs
crsctl start crs

Manage Network components


How to display global public and global cluster_interconnect?

C:\Windows\system32>oifcfg ge34f
Heartbeat 194.56.67.0 global cluster_interconnect,asm
Production 10.356.3.0 global public

How to check if nodeapps running on a node?

srvctl status nodeapps [-n my-node]
For each VIP address: network enabled/disabled, running on node host1 or not running.

Nodeapps are standard set of oracle application services which are started automatically for RAC.
Node apps Include:
1) VIP
2) Oracle Net listeners
3) Global Service Daemon
4) Oracle Notification Service (ONS).

Nodeapp Services run on each node of the cluster. They switch over to other nodes through VIP during a failover.

How to check the SCAN Configuration?

The SCAN makes it possible to add or remove nodes from the cluster without needing to reconfigure clients.

Using CLUVFY to Confirm DNS is Correctly Associating the SCAN addresses.

cluvfy comp scan
Verifying Single Client Access Name (SCAN) …PASSED
Verification of SCAN was successful.
CVU operation performed: SCAN
Date: Oct 19, 2017 1:17:59 PM
CVU home: C:\…\grid_home\bin\..\
User: .\VFENOLL

Display the current configuration of the SCAN VIPs?

srvctl config scan
SCAN name: MY-CLUSTER-SCAN, Network: 1
Subnet IPv4: 10.104.2.0/255.255.255.0/Production, static
Subnet IPv6:
SCAN 1 IPv4 VIP: 10.404.2.677
SCAN VIP is enabled.
SCAN VIP is individually enabled on nodes:
SCAN VIP is individually disabled on nodes:
SCAN 2 IPv4 VIP: 10.404.2.618
SCAN VIP is enabled.
SCAN VIP is individually enabled on nodes:
SCAN VIP is individually disabled on nodes:
SCAN 3 IPv4 VIP: 10.404.2.619
SCAN VIP is enabled.
SCAN VIP is individually enabled on nodes:
SCAN VIP is individually disabled on nodes:

Display the status of SCAN VIPs and SCAN listeners?

srvctl status scan
SCAN VIP scan1 is enabled
SCAN VIP scan1 is running on node my-node1
SCAN VIP scan2 is enabled
SCAN VIP scan2 is running on node my-node2
SCAN VIP scan3 is enabled
SCAN VIP scan3 is running on node my-node1

If you want to add or modify a scan VIP: srvctl add | modify scan -n my-scan
To delete it: srvctl remove scan

Display the status of SCAN listeners?

srvctl status scan_listener
SCAN Listener LISTENER_SCAN1 is enabled
SCAN listener LISTENER_SCAN1 is running on node my-node1
SCAN Listener LISTENER_SCAN2 is enabled
SCAN listener LISTENER_SCAN2 is running on node my-node2
SCAN Listener LISTENER_SCAN3 is enabled
SCAN listener LISTENER_SCAN3 is running on node my-node1

If you want to add or remove a scan_listener: srvctl add | remove scan_listener
To change the port: srvctl modify scan_listener -p

Manage the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR)


Verify the integrity of OCR?

cluvfy comp ocr -n all -verbose
Verifying OCR Integrity …PASSED
Verification of OCR integrity was successful.
CVU operation performed: OCR integrity
Date: Oct 11, 2017 4:56:01 PM
CVU home: C:\…grid_home\bin\..\
User: \VFENOLL

How to backup the OCR?

Oracle takes physical backup of OCR automatically every 3 hours. Default location is CRS_home/cdata/my_cluster_name/OCRBackup.
The ocrconfig tool is used to make daily copies of the automatically generated backup files.

Show backups:
ocrconfig -showbackup

Change default location of physical OCR copies:
ocrconfig -backuploc

After that, you have to copy these files on tape or in another backup location (cp -p -R CRS_home/cdata/my_cluster_name /u03/backups )

To do a manual backup:
ocrconfig -export /u03/backups/exports/OCR_exportBackup.dmp

How to recover OCR from physical or export backup?

Pre-requisite: All RAC components shutdow

Recover OCR from automatic physical backups:
crconfig -restore CRS_home/cdata/my_cluster_name/OCRBackup/backup00.ocr

Recover OCR from export backup:
ocrconfig -import /u03/backups/exports/OCR_exportBackup.dmp

How to backup the Voting disks?

In older versions of Oracle Clusterware you have to backup voting disks with the dd command.
Starting with Oracle Clusterware 11g Release 2 you no longer need to backup them. Voting disks are automatically backed up as a part of the OCR.

Manage database components


How to find the name of the database?

This name is useful as it is used in RAC commands with -d parameter.
With SQL*Plus:
connect / as sysdba
show parameter db_unique_name
With crsctl:
crsctl status resource -t | grep db

How to inspect the database configuration?

srvctl config database -d my-db-name
Database unique name: my-db-name
Database name: my-db-name
Oracle home: D:\oracle\db\product\12.2.0\dbhome_1
Oracle user: nt authority\system
Spfile: +DATA/my-db-name/PARAMETERFILE/spfile.272.9460543263
Password file: +DATA/my-db-name/PASSWORD/pwdmy-db-name.256.998734039
Domain:
Start options: open
Stop options: immediate
Database role: PRIMARY
Management policy: AUTOMATIC
Server pools:
Disk Groups: DATA,FRA
Mount point paths:
Services: my-db-name1,my-db-name2,srv1,srv2, srv3
Type: RAC
Start concurrency:
Stop concurrency:
Database instances: my-db-name1,my-db-name2
Configured nodes: node1,node2
CSS critical: no
CPU count: 0
Memory target: 0
Maximum memory: 0
Default network number for database services:
Database is administrator managed

Display name and the status of the instances in the RAC?

srvctl status database -d my-db-name
Instance my-db-name1 is running on node node1
Instance my-db-name2 is not running on node node2

To list just active nodes: olsnodes -s –t

How to start|stop the database?

srvctl stop database -d my-db-name -o immediate
srvctl start database -d my-db-name

How to start|stop one instance of the RAC?

srvctl start instance -d my-db-name -i my-db-name1
srvctl stop instance -d my-db-name -i my-db-name1
Use -force if the instance to stop is not on the local server

How to start and stop a PDB in Oracle RAC?

Stop a PDB

On the current node [or on all the nodes]:
ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE my-PDB-name CLOSE IMMEDIATE [Instances=all];
This will stop the associated service too.
Manually stopping the associated service will not close the PDB. You have to use this SQL command.

Start a PDB

On the current node [or on all the nodes]:
ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE my-PDB-name OPEN [Instances=all;]
You can also start the PDB with the associated service
This will NOT start the service(s) associated with this PDB.

How to stop and start a Listener?

srvctl stop listener -l LISTENER_NAME
srvctl start listener -l LISTENER_NAME

Git Basic Workflow Commands

G

Prerequisites:

After Installing Git in your Computer, Open an GitHub account with Username and Password.

In the Git bash, give the following command:

  • Git Config:

Git config –user.name “1stop4homebuyers”

Git config –user.email “office@1stop4homebuyers.co.uk”

This command sets the author name and email address respectively to be used with your commits.

Do the following to create a new repository:

To create a new repository, give a repository name and initialize a readme file.

After creating a new repository called Property in git hub, Clone the repository into your local system.

Open a browser and a terminal window from your desktop. After opening the terminal window, do the following:

Navigate to your home (~) directory.

$ cd ~

As you use Github more, you will probably work in multiple repositories. For that reason, it’s a good idea to create a directory to contain all those repositories.

Create a directory to contain your repositories.

$ mkdir repos

From the terminal, update the directory you want to work in to your new repos directory.

$ cd ~/repos
 

From Github, go to your Property repository and select Clone this repository.

Github displays a pop-up clone dialog. By default, the clone dialog sets the protocol to HTTPS or SSH, depending on your settings.

Copy the highlighted clone command.

From your terminal window, paste the command you copied from Github and press Return.

In the git terminal, give the git clone command.

  • Git clone [url]

List the contents of your repos directory and you should see your Property directory in it.

So, we successfully cloned your repository to your local repository.

Add a file to your local repository and put it on Github:

Go to your terminal window and navigate to the top level of your local repository.

Enter the following line into your terminal window to create a new file with content.

List all the file in Property directory by using command ls

Get the status of your local repository. The git status command tells you about how your project is progressing in comparison to your Github repository.

At this point, Git is aware that you created a new file, and you’ll see something like this:

The file is untracked, meaning that Git sees a file not part of a previous commit. The status output also shows you the next step: adding the file.

Tell Git to track your new locations.txt file using the git add command. Just like when you created a file, the git add command doesn’t return anything when you enter it correctly.

The git add command moves changes from the working directory to the Git staging area. The staging area is where you prepare a snapshot of a set of changes before committing them to the official history.

Issue the git commit command with a commit message, as shown on the next line. The -m indicates that a commit message follows.

The git commit takes the staged snapshot and commits it to the project history. Combined with git add, this process defines the basic workflow for all Git users.

Up until this point, everything you have done is on your local system and invisible to your Github repository until you push those changes.

Go back to your local terminal window and send your committed changes to Github using 

git push origin Master. This command specifies that you are pushing to the master branch (the branch on Github) on origin (the Github server).

Your commits are now on the remote repository (origin).

Go to your Property repository on Github. If you click Commits in the sidebar, you’ll see a single commit on your repository. Github combines all the things you just did into that commit and shows it to you.

Pull changes from your Git repository on Github 

Step 1. Create a file in Github

To add your new locations file, do the following:

  1. From your Property repository, click Source to open the source directory. Notice you only have two files, locations.txt and README in your directory.

Create a new file called Estate Agent and commit changes by commit Button.

So new file is formed in Property Repository. You need to pull that file to the local repository by doing following:

1.Open your terminal window and navigate to the top level repository.

2.Enter the git pull  –all command to pull all the changes from github

The git pull command merges the file from your remote repository (Bitbucket) into your local repository with a single command.

Navigate to your repository folder on your local system and you’ll see the file you just added.

Fantastic, pull command pulled the estate agent file to the local repository.

Jenkins installation steps

How to install Jenkins in linux.

  1. Make sure Java’s latest version is installed or install the one.
  2. Download the Jenkins (
  3. Install the jenkins ( sudo
  4. Start the Jenkins (
  5. Make sure port 8080 (default) is open:
  6. Extract the ip address allocated to server:
  7. Access the Jenkins in url: ip:8080
  8. Install the necessary plugins.

Install the necessary plugins

Plugin installation in progress.


Once you will provide the admin/pwd and email etc. and click ‘Continue as admin’ Jenkins will be ready for use.

Jenkins plugins at a glance.

Important Git commands

  1. To see on which branch git is and the status of the branch changes.
git status

2. To push the changes to staging area from the working directory after the changes to it.

git add "file_name"

3. After add command to push the changes to local repository, use commit command as below to push the changes from staging area to local repository.

git commit -m "commimt message    or git commit

Note: If you will use command “git commit” command only, then the default text editor like Notepad++ will open. Where we can give the commit message.

We can use this way when we need to give long commit message.

4. To push the changes to remote repository(Here Github.com) from local reposiitory.

git push origin master

5. To check which remote repository account we are logged in.

cat ~/.gitconfig

6. To set up Notepad++ as defauklt editor in Git.

git config --global core.editor "Notepadd++.exe --multiInst --nosession"

7. To edit the config file.

git config --global -e

8. To crete a fresh repository in Git.

git init repository_name

9. Rebase: 10. Revert or undo:  It undo the changes made in previous commit.

  • New commit is created without the changes made in the other.
  • Old commit still resides in the history.

11. Reset: Can be used to undo the changes at different levels.

  • Note: –hard, –soft and –mixed (modifiers to decide the reset degree).
git reset v1.5

Locking and blocking information and solution

1. To see the details about the specified sid
 
set linesize 200 select blocking_session, sid, serial#, wait_class, seconds_in_wait from gv$session where blocking_session is not null order by blocking_session ; blocking_sessionsid serial# wait_classseconds_in_wait ---------------- ---------- ---------- -------------------- -------- 148 135 61521 idle 64

Note: We found that session 148 is blocking session 135 and has been for 64 seconds.

2. Run the script provided by oracle.
 
@?/rdbms/admin/utllockt.sql

3. Simple query to find the blocking session information.

 
select object_id,session_id,process,locked_mode from gv$locked_object where session_id in (&session_id);

  a. This will give easy readable output for locking objects.

  
set lines 100
set pages 500
col "lock particulars" format a100
select
(select username from gv$session where sid=a.sid) || '('||a.sid||')'||
' is blocking to '||
(select username from gv$session where sid=b.sid) || '('||b.sid||')' "lock particulars"
from gv$lock a, gv$lock b where a.block = 1 and b.request> 0 and a.id1 = b.id1 and a.id2 = b.id2
;
lock particulars
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
qsitbba(9) is blocking to vitvcd(7)
qsitbba(72) is blocking to vitvcd(7)
qsitbba(9) is blocking to qtnsdp(72)
4. Use below to find kill details.

Note: need to provide the sid from above query.

setlinesize 200 col username format a15 colschemaname format a15 col program format a15 select sid,serial#,username,status,schemaname,program,to_char(logon_time,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:ss:mm') logon_time from v$session where sid in(&sid); 

5. >kill -3/9 can be run on spid provided by below query.

set linesize 100 
column spid format a10
column username format a10
column program format a45
selects.inst_id,
s.sid,
s.serial#,
p.spid,
s.username,
s.program
from gv$session s
join gv$process p on p.addr = s.paddr and p.inst_id = s.inst_id
where s.sid=1950 ;
6. >To see queries running from more than 5 sec.

Note: new feature of 11g.

 
set linesize 200
select s.sid, serial#, s.sql_id, (sysdate-sql_exec_start)*24*60*60 secs, sql_text from v$session s, v$sqltext t
wheres.sql_id = t.sql_id
and sql_exec_start is not null and piece = 0
and (sysdate-sql_exec_start)*24*60*60 > 5 ;

7. To find the details of locking objects.

 
set lines 180
set pages 500
col owner format a15
col object_name format a20
col object_type format a20
col sid a8
col serial# format a50
col status format a 10
col osuser format a10
col machine format a60



select c.owner, c.object_name, c.object_type, b.sid, b.serial#, b.status, b.osuser, b.machine from v$locked_object a , v$session b, dba_objects c where b.sid = a.session_id and a.object_id = c.object_id ;

8. To find the sql being run by blocking sid

 
select s.sid, s.serial#, t.sql_fulltext,t.sql_id,s.sql_hash_value,t.hash_value from v$session s, v$sql t where s.sql_address = t.address and s.sql_hash_value = t.hash_value and s.sid=1950 ;

9. To find out the query information against the process which you take from unix.

 
select sql_text, optimizer_mode, module, action from v$sqlarea where hash_value in ( select sql_hash_value from v$session wherepaddr=( select addr from v$process where spid=&process_id ) );

10. To see the queries running from more than 5 sec

 
set linesize 200 select s.sid, serial#, s.sql_id, (sysdate-sql_exec_start)*24*60*60 secs, sql_text from v$session s, v$sqltext t where s.sql_id = t.sql_id and sql_exec_start is not null and piece = 0 and (sysdate-sql_exec_start)*24*60*60 > 5 ; sid serial# sql_idsecssql_text ---------- ---------- ------------- ---------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- 492 46694 a0f74y2n959cbt 12 select /*+ first_rows(1) use_nl (p t) */ path_name,path_doci

Weblogic: Scripts to start/stop Weblogic

1. Node Manager:
Start

 
$WLS_HOME/server/bin/startNodeManager.sh

Stop
Note: There is no specific command to stop node manager, you have to kill the process manually to stop the node manager.

 
kill -9 `ps -ef | grep -i nodemanager.javahome | grep -v grep | awk {'print $2'} | head -1`

2. Weblogic:
Start

 $DOMAIN_HOME/bin/startWebLogic.sh 

Stop

 
$DOMAIN_HOME/bin/stopWebLogic.sh

3. Managed Server:
Start

 
$DOMAIN_HOME/bin/startManagedWebLogic.sh

Stop

 
$DOMAIN_HOME/bin/stopManagedWebLogic.sh
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