Important Git commands

  1. To see on which branch git is and the status of the branch changes.
git status

2. To push the changes to staging area from the working directory after the changes to it.

git add "file_name"

3. After add command to push the changes to local repository, use commit command as below to push the changes from staging area to local repository.

git commit -m "commimt message    or git commit

Note: If you will use command “git commit” command only, then the default text editor like Notepad++ will open. Where we can give the commit message.

We can use this way when we need to give long commit message.

4. To push the changes to remote repository(Here from local reposiitory.

git push origin master

5. To check which remote repository account we are logged in.

cat ~/.gitconfig

6. To set up Notepad++ as defauklt editor in Git.

git config --global core.editor "Notepadd++.exe --multiInst --nosession"

7. To edit the config file.

git config --global -e

8. To crete a fresh repository in Git.

git init repository_name

9. Rebase: 10. Revert or undo:  It undo the changes made in previous commit.

  • New commit is created without the changes made in the other.
  • Old commit still resides in the history.

11. Reset: Can be used to undo the changes at different levels.

  • Note: –hard, –soft and –mixed (modifiers to decide the reset degree).
git reset v1.5

All important commands for cloning from Github remote repository

The first step to start with Git is to connect to a remote repository. It can be Gitlab, Github or any other. Here we will use Github.

So please follow below three commands to configure Github.

  1. To check if Git is installed or the Git version we are using.
git vesion

2. Next step is to give the User name.

git config --global "Username"

3. Then give the registered email id.

git config --global ""

4. Use below command to see if User name and email are correctly given.

git config --global --list

5. Now login to where your repositories are placed and go to the repository you want to clone. There go to the Clone or Download button as shown in the screenshot below and first select use https and copy the HTTPs Link.

6. Now go to Git bash client and use next command as below.

Note: Change the https link.

git clone ""

7. Now give the usename and Password of the Github account for which the details are given above. And you will get the cloning successful message as below.

Please do comment in case of any doubt. Thank you.

Split a *.gz file and merge again in Linux or Windows.

This post will deal the situation where you have big size of dump of anything and you need to split that into smaller chunks than need to send over ftp/mail etc. After that need to regenerate the same it was before splitting.

Situation: I have a expdp dump of 35 GB, I need to send it via ftp mail which can accept maximum 1 GB file.


NOTE: With below command you can expdp without sysdba pwd.

expdp \"/ as sysdba\" FLASHBACK_TIME=\"TO_TIMESTAMP\(TO_CHAR\(SYSDATE,\'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS\'\),\'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS\'\)\" full=y dumpfile=full_db.dmp logfile=full_db.log DIRECTORY=DATAPUMP_DIR compression=METADATA_ONLY version=latest PARALLEL=4

NOTE: Another way to expdp without password is as under.

expdp \'/ as sysdba\' directory=DATAPUMP_DIR full=y ...

1. Zip the existing dump.
gzip full_db.dmp

2. Split the .gz file into 1 GB files.
split -b 1024m “full_db.dmp.gz” “full_db.dmp.gz_01”

3. Send it using appropriate method like ftp, attachement etc.
ftp/mail etc.

4. Merge splitted files again
Linux: cat full_db.dmp.gz_01a* > full_db.dmp.gz
Windows: copy /b file1 + file2 + file3 + file4 filetogether

5. Unzip the file and now you are ready to do everything on this file, as it was in step 1.
Now unzip the compressed dump and it is ready to use.
gunzip full_db.dmp.gz

Unix: Performance commands at O.S.

Performance related commands iostat , vmstat

Introduction to iostat , vmstat and netstat

This document is primarily written with reference to solaris performance monitoring and tuning but these tools are available in other unix variants also with slight syntax difference.

iostat , vmstat and netstat are three most commonly used tools for performance monitoring . These comes built in with the operating system and are easy to use .iostat stands for input output statistics and reports statistics for i/o devices such as disk drives . vmstat gives the statistics for virtual Memory and netstat gives the network statstics .

Following paragraphs describes these tools and their usage for performance monitoring.

Table of content :
1. Iostat
* Syntax
* example
* Result and Solutions

2. vmstat
* syntax
* example
* Result and Solutions

3. netstat
* syntax
* example
* Result and Solutions

Input Output statistics ( iostat )

iostat reports terminal and disk I/O activity and CPU utilization. The first line of output is for the time period since boot & each subsequent line is for the prior interval . Kernel maintains a number of counters to keep track of the values.

iostat’s activity class options default to tdc (terminal, disk, and CPU). If any other option/s are specified, this default is completely overridden i.e. iostat -d will report only statistics about the disks.

Basic synctax is iostat interval count
option – let you specify the device for which information is needed like disk , cpu or terminal. (-d , -c , -t or -tdc ) . x options gives the extended statistics .

interval – is time period in seconds between two samples . iostat 4 will give data at each 4 seconds interval.

count – is the number of times the data is needed . iostat 4 5 will give data at 4 seconds interval 5 times

$ iostat -xtc 10 5

extended disk statistics tty cpu
disk r/s w/s Kr/s Kw/s wait actv svc_t %w %b tin tout us sy wt id
sd0 2.6 3.0 20.7 22.7 0.1 0.2 59.2 6 19 0 84 3 85 11 0
sd1 4.2 1.0 33.5 8.0 0.0 0.2 47.2 2 23
sd2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
sd3 10.2 1.6 51.4 12.8 0.1 0.3 31.2 3 31

The fields have the following meanings:
disk name of the disk
r/s reads per second
w/s writes per second
Kr/s kilobytes read per second
Kw/s kilobytes written per second
wait average number of transactions waiting for service (Q length)
actv average number of transactions actively being serviced
(removed from the queue but not yet completed)
%w percent of time there are transactions waiting
for service (queue non-empty)
%b percent of time the disk is busy (transactions
in progress)
Results and Solutions
The values to look from the iostat output are:
* Reads/writes per second (r/s , w/s)
* Percentage busy (%b)
* Service time (svc_t)

If a disk shows consistently high reads/writes along with , the percentage busy (%b) of the disks is greater than 5 percent, and the average service time (svc_t) is greater than 30 milliseconds, then one of the following action needs to be taken

1.) Tune the application to use disk i/o more efficiently by modifying the disk queries and using available cache facilities of application servers .

2.) Spread the file system of the disk on to two or more disk using disk striping feature of volume manager /disksuite etc.

3.) Increase the system parameter values for inode cache , ufs_ninode , which is Number of inodes to be held in memory. Inodes are cached globally (for UFS), not on a per-file system basis

4.) Move the file system to another faster disk /controller or replace existing disk/controller to a faster one.
Virtual Memory Statistics ( vmstat )


vmstat reports virtual memory statistics of process, virtual memory, disk, trap, and CPU activity.

On multicpu systems , vmstat averages the number of CPUs into the output. For per-process statistics .Without options, vmstat displays a one-line summary of the virtual memory activity since the system was booted.

Basic synctax is vmstat interval count

option – let you specify the type of information needed such as paging -p , cache -c ,.interrupt -i etc.

if no option is specified information about process , memory , paging , disk ,interrupts & cpu is displayed .

interval – is time period in seconds between two samples . vmstat 4 will give data at each 4 seconds interval.

count – is the number of times the data is needed . vmstat 4 5 will give data at 4 seconds interval 5 times.

The following command displays a summary of what the system
is doing every five seconds.

# vmstat 5

procs memory page disk faults cpu
r b w swap free re mf pi p fr de sr s0 s1 s2 s3 in sy cs us sy id
0 0 0 11456 4120 1 41 19 1 3 0 2 0 4 0 0 48 112 130 4 14 82
0 0 1 10132 4280 0 4 44 0 0 0 0 0 23 0 0 211 230 144 3 35 62
0 0 1 10132 4616 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 150 172 146 3 33 64
0 0 1 10132 5292 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 165 105 130 1 21 78

The fields of vmstat’s display are
r in run queue
b blocked for resources I/O, paging etc.
w swapped
memory (in Kbytes)
swap – amount of swap space currently available
free – size of the free list

page ( in units per second).
re page reclaims – see -S option for how this
field is modified.
mf minor faults – see -S option for how this
field is modified.
pi kilobytes paged in
po kilobytes paged out
fr kilobytes freed
de anticipated short-term memory shortfall (Kbytes)
sr pages scanned by clock algorithm
disk ( operations per second )
There are slots for up to four disks,
labeled with a single letter and number.
The letter indicates the type of disk
(s = SCSI, i = IPI, etc).
The number is the logical unit number.

in (non clock) device interrupts
sy system calls
cs CPU context switches

cpu – breakdown of percentage usage of CPU time.
On multiprocessors this is an a
average across all processors.
us user time
sy system time
id idle time
Results and Solution from iostat

A. CPU issues
Following columns has to be watched to determine if there is any cpu issue

1. Processes in the run queue (procs r)
2. User time (cpu us)
3. System time (cpu sy)
4. Idle time (cpu id)

procs cpu
r b w us sy id
0 0 0 4 14 82
0 0 1 3 35 62
0 0 1 3 33 64
0 0 1 1 21 78
Problem symptoms

A.) Number of processes in run queue
1.) If the number of processes in run queue (procs r) are consistently greater than the number of CPUs on the system it will slow down system as there are more processes then available CPUs .
2.) if this number is more than four times the number of available CPUs in the system then system is facing shortage of cpu power and will greatly slow down the processess on the system.
3.) If the idle time (cpu id) is consistently 0 and if the system time (cpu sy) is double the user time (cpu us) system is facing shortage of CPU resources.

Resolution to these kind of issues involves tuning of application procedures to make efficient use of cpu and as a last resort increasing the cpu power or adding more cpu to the system.

B. Memory Issues
Memory bottlenecks are determined by the scan rate (sr) . The scan rate is the pages scanned by the clock algorithm per second. If the scan rate (sr) is continuously over 200 pages per second then there is a memory shortage.

1. Tune the applications & servers to make efficient use of memory and cache.
2. Increase system memory .
3. Implement priority paging in s in pre solaris 8 versions by adding line “set priority paging=1? in
/etc/system. Remove this line if upgrading from Solaris 7 to 8 & retaining old /etc/system file.

Unix: Network Statistics (netstat)

Network Statistics (netstat)

netstat displays the contents of various network-related data structures in depending on the options selected.


multiple options can be given at one time.

-a – displays the state of all sockets.
-r – shows the system routing tables
-i – gives statistics on a per-interface basis.
-m – displays information from the network memory buffers. On Solaris, this shows statistics for STREAMS
-p [proto] – retrieves statistics for the specified protocol
-s – shows per-protocol statistics. (some implementations allow -ss to remove fileds with a value of 0 (zero) from the display.)
-D – display the status of DHCP configured interfaces.
-n do not lookup hostnames, display only IP addresses.
-d (with -i) displays dropped packets per interface.
-I [interface] retrieve information about only the specified interface.
-v be verbose

interval – number for continuous display of statictics.


$netstat -rn

Routing Table: IPv4
Destination Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface
——————– ——————– —– —– —— ——— U 1 1444 le0 U 1 0 le0
default UG 1 68276 UH 1 10497 lo0
This shows the output on a Solaris machine who’s IP address is with a default router at

Results and Solutions

A.) Network availability
The command as above is mostly useful in troubleshooting network accessibility issues . When outside network is not accessible from a machine check the following

1. if the default router ip address is correct
2. you can ping it from your machine.
3. If router address is incorrect it can be changed with route add command. See man route for more information.

route command examples
$route add default
$route add

If the router address is correct but still you can’t ping it there may be some network cable /hub/switch problem and you have to try and eliminate the faulty component .

B.) Network Response
$ netstat -i

Name Mtu Net/Dest Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Collis Queue
lo0 8232 loopback localhost 77814 0 77814 0 0 0
hme0 1500 server1 server1 10658 3 48325 0 279257 0
This option is used to diagnose the network problems when the connectivity is there but it is slow in response .

Values to look at:

* Collisions (Collis)
* Output packets (Opkts)
* Input errors (Ierrs)
* Input packets (Ipkts)

The above values will give information to workout

i. Network collision rate as follows :

Network collision rate = Output collision counts / Output packets

Network-wide collision rate greater than 10 percent will indicate

* Overloaded network,
* Poorly configured network,
* Hardware problems.

ii. Input packet error rate as follows :

Input Packet Error Rate = Ierrs / Ipkts.

If the input error rate is high (over 0.25 percent), the host is dropping packets. Hub/switch cables etc needs to be checked for potential problems.

C. Network socket & TCP Connection state

Netstat gives important information about network socket and tcp state . This is very useful in
finding out the open , closed and waiting network tcp connection .

Network states returned by netstat are following

CLOSED —- Closed. The socket is not being used.
LISTEN —- Listening for incoming connections.
SYN_SENT —- Actively trying to establish connection.
SYN_RECEIVED —- Initial synchronization of the connection under way.
ESTABLISHED —- Connection has been established.
CLOSE_WAIT —- Remote shut down; waiting for the socket to close.
FIN_WAIT_1 —- Socket closed; shutting down connection.
CLOSING —- Closed,
then remote shutdown; awaiting acknowledgement.
LAST_ACK —- Remote shut down, then closed ;awaiting acknowledgement.
FIN_WAIT_2 —- Socket closed; waiting for shutdown from remote.
TIME_WAIT —- Wait after close for remote shutdown retransmission..
#netstat -a

Local Address Remote Address Swind Send-Q Rwind Recv-Q State
*.* *.* 0 0 24576 0 IDLE
*.22 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.22 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.* *.* 0 0 24576 0 IDLE
*.32771 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.4045 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.25 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.5987 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.898 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.32772 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.32775 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.32776 *.* 0 0 24576 0 LISTEN
*.* *.* 0 0 24576 0 IDLE 41992 0 24616 0 ESTABLISHED 38912 0 24616 0 ESTABLISHED 18048 0 24616 0 ESTABLISHED
if you see a lots of connections in FIN_WAIT state tcp/ip parameters have to be tuned because the
connections are not being closed and they gets accumulating . After some time system may run out of
resource . TCP parameter can be tuned to define a time out so that connections can be released and used by new connection.

ASM Disks performance metric

ASM Disks performance metric

COLUMN disk_group_name FORMAT a20 HEAD ‘Disk Group Name’
COLUMN disk_path FORMAT a20 HEAD ‘Disk Path’
COLUMN reads FORMAT 999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Reads’
COLUMN writes FORMAT 999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Writes’
COLUMN read_errs FORMAT 999,999,999 HEAD ‘Read|Errors’
COLUMN write_errs FORMAT 999,999,999 HEAD ‘Write|Errors’
COLUMN read_time FORMAT 999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Read|Time’
COLUMN write_time FORMAT 999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Write|Time’
COLUMN bytes_read FORMAT 999,999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Bytes|Read’
COLUMN bytes_written FORMAT 999,999,999,999,999 HEAD ‘Bytes|Written’
BREAK ON report ON disk_group_name SKIP 2
COMPUTE sum LABEL “” OF reads writes read_errs write_errs read_time write_time bytes_read bytes_written ON disk_group_name
COMPUTE sum LABEL “Grand Total: ” OF reads writes read_errs write_errs read_time write_time bytes_read bytes_written ON report
SELECT disk_group_name
, b.path disk_path
, b.reads reads
, b.writes writes
, b.read_errs read_errs
, b.write_errs write_errs
, b.read_time read_time
, b.write_time write_time
, b.bytes_read bytes_read
, b.bytes_written bytes_written
FROM v$asm_diskgroup a JOIN v$asm_disk b USING (group_number)

Fusion Middleware environment start and stop steps

Steps to start and stop Fusion Middleware environment

1. Steps, in order, to start Fusion Middleware environment
2. Steps, in order, to stop Fusion Middleware environment

Starting an Oracle Fusion Middleware Environment

1. Steps, in order, to start Fusion Middleware environment.

1. Start the database-based repository i.e. start the database.
set the correct ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID
Start the Net Listener:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl start
Start the database instance:

SQL> connect SYS as SYSDBA
SQL> startup

2. Start the Oracle WebLogic Server Administration Server.
You can start/stop WebLogic Server Administration Servers using the WLST command line or a script.

Note: While you start/stop also start/stop the processes running in the Administration Server including the WebLogic Server Administration Console and Fusion Middleware Control.

3. Ensure Node Manager is running. Below is the script to stat it.
Note: can be used to stop it.

4. Start Oracle Identity Management system components.
Set $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_INSTANCE environment for Identity Management components.
Start/stop OPMN and all system components:
$ORACLE_INSTANCE/bin/opmnctl startall

Steps, in order, to stop Fusion Middleware environment

2. Steps, in order, to stop Fusion Middleware environment

1. Stop system components as Oracle HTTP Server etc.
Note: You can stop them in any order.
$ORACLE_INSTANCE/bin/opmnctl stopall

To stop Oracle Management Agent, use the following command:

opmnctl stopproc ias-component=EMAGENT
2. Stop WebLogic Server Managed Servers. 
Note: Any applications deployed to the server are also stopped.
managed_server_name admin_url

3. Stop Oracle Identity Management components.
set $ORACLE_HOME environment variable to the Oracle home for the Identity Management components.
$ORACLE_INSTANCE/bin/opmnctl stopall

4.Stop the Administration Server.
You can start Server Administration Servers using the WLST command line or a script.


Note: While you start/stop also start/stop the processes running in the Administration Server including the WebLogic Server Administration Console and Fusion Middleware Control.

5. Stop the database.
connect SYS as SYSDBA
SQL> shutdown immediate ;